Cidatel Park
- Fort Winiary
Flora and fauna of Citadel

The urban greenery system in Poznan is usually defined as a green wedge-ring system.
Citdel Park is located at the meeting point of four green wedges: Western (Golecin), Eastern (Cybina), Southern (Debina) and Northern (Naramowice) ones. The park area is connected directly or indirectly with all these wedges.

The Northern Wedge and Southern Wedge run along the river valley of Warta river. The Southern Wedge, broken for a moment in the vicinity of Lubon town, is connected with Wielkopolska National Park. The Northern Wedge covers the area of Morasko and Zurawiniec Nature Reserves. The surface of the Eastern Wedge, shaped along Cybina river, is the biggest one. The Western Wedge spreads out along Bogdanka river.

Additionally to wedges, there are three green rings belonging to greenery system of Poznan city. The internal smallest one (in the form of an arch) is based on the line of medieval city walls and is not fully closed. The second ring, so called Stübben Ring, is located on the remnants of old Prussian fortifications from XIX century. The third ring (the greatest one) is situated along the line of old outer fortifications ring.

The existing greenery with the relation to the natural conditions of three main watercourses (of Warta, Cybina and Bogdanka rivers) was the basis of spatial plans for Poznan city developed in nineteen thirties by prof. Władysław Czarnecki.

Citadel Park, connected with all four green wedges as well as with the central green ring became a link, which unifies all elements of green wedge-ring system of Poznan.


The Citadel Park is a very valuable natural area. The prevailing tree species found in the park are those associated with the communities of fertile broad-leaved forests. The dendroflora of the park consists of 167 taxons of arborescent plants, including 109 trees, 54 bushes and four climbing plants.
The fauna of this area is also rich, including protected species of animals. Totally 2 protected species of reptiles, 4 of amphibians, 12 of birds and 13 of mammals were identified in this park.


Dominant tree species in Citadel Park (in % share)
Latin name English name Share
Acer platanoides Norway maple 25%
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 23%
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore maple 4.2-5.3%
Acer campestre Field maple 4.2-5.3%
Tilia cordata Small-leaved lime 4.2-5.3%


Dominant bush species in Citadel Park (in % share)
Latin name English name
Syringa vulgaris Common lilac
Taxus baccata English Yew
Symphoricarpos albus Common snowberry
Juniperus ×pfitzeriana Pfitzer juniper
Juniperus sabina Savin juniper
Hedera helix Common ivy
Philadelphus sp. Mock-orange


There is one natural monument - English oak (Quercus robur) located close to the crossing of Armii Poznań and Za Cytadelą streets. It is named general Czujkow oak to memorize his contributions during fights of Poznan in 1945.


The area of Poznan military fortifications, including Fort Winiary situated in Citadel Park and underground bunkers situated at Wojska Polskiego Avenue and Mazowicka Street (in close vicinity of Citadel Park) is the protected area within the network Natura 2000 as a special protected habitat area (Habitats Directive). The code number of this area is PLH300005.
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. The aim of this programme is to protect specific habitat types and species, which are the most seriously, threatened ones across Europe.

Two European directives created the basis for the programme Natura 2000:
  • the Birds Directive adopted earlier in 1979, replaced by the Directive from 2009,
  • the Habitats Directive from 1992.
The whole network Natura 2000 covers around 18% of land in the countries belonging to European Union.


The fortification buildings are the place of overwintering for a few protected species of bats. Members of Polish Society for Nature Protection "Salamandra" show special interest for bats from Citadel Park in Poznan already for many years and play active role in many activities aimed to the protection of these animals.





References:
List of protected areas: http://obszary.natura2000.org.pl/
http://natura2000.eea.europa.eu/
Wronska-Pilarek D., Malinski T., 2008. Dendroflora of the Citadel Park in Poznan. Acta Sci. Pol., Silv. Colendar. Rat. Ind. Lignar. 7(2), 59-70.