Cidatel Park
- Fort Winiary

Park Citadel is an extensive green area (app. 100 ha) located in north part of Poznan (Stare Miasto district) and is boarded by streets: Szelagowska, Za Cytadela and Armii Poznań.

During the medieval times there were extensive prince's vineyards situated on Winiary Hill, then descended by two villages Winiary. The hill was considered to be valued for military fortress already by Napoleon, but it took still some time until Germans began the work. After moving the inhabitants of these two villages to other locations, at the beginning of XIX century, the construction of new Winiary Fort (Kernwerk) began (at present known as Citadel Park).

The construction works together with reconstruction ones took time since 1828 until 1872, and the fortifications were used by army till the end of II World War. But already in XIX century the technological progress weakened very quickly the Citadel's importance as military fortifications. Despite of this fact, still for the long time Citadel performed other functions, e.g. as military warehouses or a prison. The first and (as it later turned out) the last only one war episode in the history of this fortress was at the end of II World War. It took almost one month since the Polish-Russian armies managed to capture the fort occupied by Germans. Unfortunately due to heavy artillery bombardment the big part of Citadel was destroyed.

But even heavier damages took place in few years after the war. The bricks obtained from that operation were used to rebuild the housing estates in Poznan.

From 1962, the Citadel had been turned into Monument Park of Polish-Russian Friendship and Brotherhood of Arms, based on plans by B.Lisiak. In 1992 the official name of this area was turned into Citadel Park.

In 1966 Citadel was entered in the register of historical monuments of Poznan city with a code A006 to memorize its role in the history of the city.

There are two museums (Museum of Armaments and Museum of the Poznan Army), sledge track, a few small plants collections, summer amphitheater and a few tens of sculptures located all over the park.

Fort Winiary is a part of bigger fortification system of Poznan city, of the polygonal type, built in XIX century. The part of fortifications including Fort Winiary lost its importance due to construction of new broader ring of fortifications built in seventies of XIX century.

The Fort Poznan was erected on the initiative of gen. Karl von Grolman based on design prepared by Johann Leopold Ludwig Brese.
Main elements of Fort Winiary:

Ravelin (in Latin ravelere – separate)

A triangular fortification building, located in front of the innerworks of a fortress to protect other parts of the fortification. Opened in the back and usually protected by the moat.

There were four ravelins in Fort Winiary, among them Ravelin I is in the best condition at present. The only remains of Ravelin II are in form of a small wall near a pond in Rosarium (built in place of Ravelin II).

The remains of Ravelin IV are the part of the Amphitheatre.
Ravelin I
Ravelin II
Ravelin III
Ravelin IV


A fortification construction, build on the base of a circle, square or polygon. It worked as a point of an independent defence. Located outside the main line of the defence, usually protected by a moat or an earth wall.

Fort Winiary had four redouts, two on each side of the main reduit. Redoute I and Redoute II located to the west of Kernwerk are in better form than the other two.

The origin of the name derives from Latin adjective "reductus" meaning "withdrawn, remote, distant".
Redout I
Redout II

Bastion (from French bastillon - fortress, tower)

A dominant angular part of fortification construction, built at the bending point of fort linies.

There were three bastions build as a part of Fort Winiary. In 1856 the bastions were renamed as:

Bastion I - Bastion Johann
Bastion II - Bastion Leopold
Bastion III - Bastion Ludwig

to memorize the chief architect of this fort, Johann Leopold Ludwig Brese.
Bastion I
Bastion II
Bastion III

Estacade (from French estacade)

A brigde construction creating a connection over built-up area or ground lowering.

Fort Winiary had two estacades, leading to forts which protected dams located on rivers: Warta (eastern) and Wierzbak (western).
Eastern Estacade
Western Estacade

Reduit (French réduit, German das Kernwerk)

A central structure of the fortification, based on a circle or a polygon, being the main defence point of a fort or a bastion.

At present it is quite difficult to locate this part of the Fort Winiary. Most of this structure was demolished during first years after II World War, when the bricks from this fort were used for reconstruction works of many buildings in Poznan and Warsaw. At present the Sport meadow is situated on its remains. The only remains of fortifications is to be found in the basement of Sapers monument and small parts of main entrance situated nearby this monument.

Powder stores

There were two powder stores built in Fort Winiary in 1838 year and then modernized a few times (Kriegs-Pulver-Magazin No 1 and Kriegs-Pulver-Magazin No 2), where the stocks of powder were kept in appropriate conditions.

The proper ventilation of such places was essential to keep the stored powder in the required humidity. The safety fire issues were also essential, having in mind that forts were built at times, when oil lamps or other devices with open fire were used to illumination purposes.
Powder store near Rav.I
Powder store near Rav.IV


Museum of Armaments is placed now in the old ammunition bunker (Spezial-Kriegs-Laboratorium). The sanitary bunker is not opened to public at present.
Ammunition bunker
Sanitary bunker

Field gate (Northern gate)

The only gate in the northen part of Fort Winiary, located near Bastion II. The line of narrow-gauge railway to Biedrusko testing-ground passed through this gate at the period between I and II World Wars.

The fortress anti-scarp is situated near this gate (inner-moat wall).
Field gate

There are a few other terms connected closely to fortifications like:
  • curtain wall - straight defensive wall between two bastions,
  • casemate - vaulted chamber in a bastion or in a fortress,
  • ditch - trench used to protected fortifications,
  • caponier - construction increasing the area of gunfire.

There is traffic circle Rondo Kaponiera, an important junction point in Poznan city, located in nearby of the inner ring of old fortification system of Fort Poznan, form which its name originated.

The urban greenery system in Poznan is usually defined as a green wedge-ring system.
Green wedges of Poznan
Citdel Park is located at the meeting point of four green wedges: Western (Golecin), Eastern (Cybina), Southern (Debina) and Northern (Naramowice) ones. The park area is connected directly or indirectly with all these wedges.

The Northern Wedge and Southern Wedge run along the river valley of Warta river. The Southern Wedge, broken for a moment in the vicinity of Lubon town, is connected with Wielkopolska National Park. The Northern Wedge covers the area of Morasko and Zurawiniec Nature Reserves. The surface of the Eastern Wedge, shaped along Cybina river, is the biggest one. The Western Wedge spreads out along Bogdanka river.

Additionally to wedges, there are three green rings belonging to greenery system of Poznan city. The internal smallest one (in the form of an arch) is based on the line of medieval city walls and is not fully closed. The second ring, so called Stübben Ring, is located on the remnants of old Prussian fortifications from XIX century. The third ring (the greatest one) is situated along the line of old outer fortifications ring.

The existing greenery with the relation to the natural conditions of three main watercourses (of Warta, Cybina and Bogdanka rivers) was the basis of spatial plans for Poznan city developed in nineteen thirties by prof. Władysław Czarnecki.

Citadel Park, connected with all four green wedges as well as with the central green ring became a link, which unifies all elements of green wedge-ring system of Poznan.

The Citadel Park is a very valuable natural area. The prevailing tree species found in the park are those associated with the communities of fertile broad-leaved forests. The dendroflora of the park consists of 167 taxons of arborescent plants, including 109 trees, 54 bushes and four climbing plants.
The fauna of this area is also rich, including protected species of animals. Totally 2 protected species of reptiles, 4 of amphibians, 12 of birds and 13 of mammals were identified in this park.

Dominant tree species in Citadel Park (in % share)
Latin name English name Share
Acer platanoides Norway maple 25%
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 23%
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore maple 4.2-5.3%
Acer campestre Field maple 4.2-5.3%
Tilia cordata Small-leaved lime 4.2-5.3%

Dominant bush species in Citadel Park (in % share)
Latin name English name
Syringa vulgaris Common lilac
Taxus baccata English Yew
Symphoricarpos albus Common snowberry
Juniperus ×pfitzeriana Pfitzer juniper
Juniperus sabina Savin juniper
Hedera helix Common ivy
Philadelphus sp. Mock-orange

There is one natural monument - English oak (Quercus robur) located close to the crossing of Armii Poznań and Za Cytadelą streets. It is named general Czujkow oak to memorize his contributions during fights of Poznan in 1945.

The area of Poznan military fortifications, including Fort Winiary situated in Citadel Park and underground bunkers situated at Wojska Polskiego Avenue and Mazowicka Street (in close vicinity of Citadel Park) is the protected area within the network Natura 2000 as a special protected habitat area (Habitats Directive). The code number of this area is PLH300005.

There are many interesting places in Poznan, some of them more famous, some less. Citadel belongs rather to this first group. The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. Visitors who use this website and rely on any information do so at their own risk. Although every effort on my side is made to to keep the information up to date and correct.
If anybody thinks, that any part of this site or information given here should be removed or changed, please send me the e-mail.
I decline any responsibility, direct or indirect, with regard to persons or third parties, for any possible inaccuracies, errors, omissions, or damages originating from the content of this site.
Texts, photos and graphics posted on this site are all prepared and created by me.
I do not warrant that functions available on this website will be uninterrupted or error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the server that makes it available is free of viruses or bugs. You acknowledge that it is your responsibility to implement sufficient procedures and virus checks (including anti-virus and other security checks) to satisfy your particular requirements for the accuracy of data input and output.

The site uses cookies only for collectiong statistical information connected with movement at this site. By continuing to use this site you are giving your consent to receive them. If you do want to block cookies, you need to do this by changing the settings in your browser to reject them from this site.

Before you continue to read this site please accept the information that this site uses cookies and data to measure site statistics to understand better how this site is used.

Fo more information please read Disclaimer. I accept