Fort Winiary is a part of bigger fortification system of Poznan city, of the polygonal type, built in XIX century. The part of fortifications including Fort Winiary lost its importance due to construction of new broader ring of fortifications built in seventies of XIX century.
The Fort Poznan was erected on the initiative of gen. Karl von Grolman based on design prepared by Johann Leopold Ludwig Brese.
Main elements of Fort Winiary:
Ravelin (in Latin ravelere – separate)
A triangular fortification building, located in front of the innerworks of a fortress to protect other parts of the fortification. Opened in the back and usually protected by the moat.
There were four ravelins in Fort Winiary, among them Ravelin I is in the best condition at present. The only remains of Ravelin II are in form of a small wall near a pond in Rosarium (built in place of Ravelin II).
The remains of Ravelin IV are the part of the Amphitheatre.
A fortification construction, build on the base of a circle, square or polygon. It worked as a point of an independent defence.
Located outside the main line of the defence, usually protected by a moat or an earth wall.
Fort Winiary had four redouts, two on each side of the main reduit.
Redoute I and Redoute II located to the west of Kernwerk are in better form than the other two.
The origin of the name derives from Latin adjective "reductus" meaning "withdrawn, remote, distant".
Bastion (from French bastillon - fortress, tower)
A dominant angular part of fortification construction, built at the bending point of fort linies.
There were three bastions build as a part of Fort Winiary. In 1856 the bastions were renamed as:
Bastion I - Bastion Johann
Bastion II - Bastion Leopold
Bastion III - Bastion Ludwig
to memorize the chief architect of this fort, Johann Leopold Ludwig Brese.
Estacade (from French estacade)
A brigde construction creating a connection over built-up area or ground lowering.
Fort Winiary had two estacades, leading to forts which protected dams located on rivers: Warta (eastern) and Wierzbak (western).
Reduit (French réduit, German das Kernwerk)
A central structure of the fortification, based on a circle or a polygon, being the main defence point of a fort or a bastion.
At present it is quite difficult to locate this part of the Fort Winiary. Most of this structure was demolished during first years after II World War, when the bricks from this fort were used for reconstruction works of many buildings in Poznan and Warsaw. At present the Sport meadow is situated on its remains. The only remains of fortifications is to be found in the basement of Sapers monument and small parts of main entrance situated nearby this monument.
There were two powder stores built in Fort Winiary in 1838 year and then modernized a few times (Kriegs-Pulver-Magazin No 1 and Kriegs-Pulver-Magazin No 2), where the stocks of powder were kept in appropriate conditions.
The proper ventilation of such places was essential to keep the stored powder in the required humidity. The safety fire issues were also essential, having in mind that forts were built at times, when oil lamps or other devices with open fire were used to illumination purposes.
Powder store near Rav.I
Powder store near Rav.IV
Museum of Armaments is placed now in the old ammunition bunker (Spezial-Kriegs-Laboratorium). The sanitary bunker is not opened to public at present.
Field gate (Northern gate)
The only gate in the northen part of Fort Winiary, located near Bastion II. The line of narrow-gauge railway to Biedrusko testing-ground passed through this gate at the period between I and II World Wars.
The fortress anti-scarp is situated near this gate (inner-moat wall).
There are a few other terms connected closely to fortifications like:
- curtain wall - straight defensive wall between two bastions,
- casemate - vaulted chamber in a bastion or in a fortress,
- ditch - trench used to protected fortifications,
- caponier - construction increasing the area of gunfire.
There is traffic circle Rondo Kaponiera, an important junction point in Poznan city, located in nearby of the inner ring of old fortification system of Fort Poznan, form which its name originated.